keito potato

Vegetarian Shaomai
December 21, 2017, 4:44 am
Filed under: Living in China, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , ,

I’ve grown to love shaomai, the little folded bulbs filled with sticky rice, mushrooms, and soy sauce. However, it’s almost impossible finding them vegetarian because they traditionally have a bit of minced meat in the filling. The only place I can get meatless ones in Nanjing is at a Buddhist Temple, Jimingsi.  I have to travel about an hour and a half across town, and then climb to the top of a hill to arrive at the temple’s café which overlooks the city wall and Xuanxu Lake. It’s a lovely setting to enjoy a few shaomai, but this trek doesn’t make it an easy snack for me.

Jiming Temple Shaomai

Jiming Temple Shaomai

I decided to take matters into my own hands and learn how to make them on my own. My student’s mom in Shanghai has taught me how to cook a number of dishes, and her vegetarian shaomai are fabulous.  She is almost a vegetarian herself – a flexitarian – because of observing the treatment of animals when she was “sent down” to the countryside during the Cultural Revolution.

I had enjoyed her shaomai a few years ago made with an alternative wrapping of cellophane-thin soy paper, but this time cooking together a week and a half ago, we made them with the traditional dough wrappers.

This recipe has no fixed amounts, like typical Chinese home cooking.  I’ve never seen measuring cups or measuring spoons in a Chinese home.  If you want to try these yourself, just follow along with the method, and adjust the amounts as needed.  This time my friend added too much soy sauce, so she then scrambled a few more eggs for the filling to dilute the flavor.  Problem solved.

sticky rice, mushrooms, and carrots


Start by making sticky rice.  She made this before I arrived.  Sticky rice requires a good deal less water than regular steamed rice.

Mince several mushrooms and woodear mushrooms, AKA black fungus. That day she also added minced carrots and a local Shanghai wild green called “jicai.” You could substitute a little minced spinach other another green if you want to add a little green nutrition.

Next, scramble several eggs and add them to the mixture. To make Chinese scrambled eggs, heat oil in a very hot wok. Beat the eggs with a little salt and a splash of shaoxing wine. When the oil is almost smoking, pour in the eggs. They will make a loud whoosh sound because of the high heat. Stir gently until cooked. Add the scrambled eggs to the rice and mushroom mixture and stir well.

Next comes the soy sauce. Shanghai’s cuisine is known for dishes braised with soy sauce, and Shanghai folks have several types of soy sauce in their kitchens for different uses. She used a heavier variety of soy sauce used for braising, and boiled it a bit in a wok before adding it to the rice mixture. Nothing was measured, but I would guess it was about a cup of soy sauce.

Once it was all mixed, as I mentioned before, she tasted it and determined it was too salty, so she scrambled 4-5 more eggs to dilute the flavor.

Now it’s time to fill them. Because shaomai come from Shanghai, which is considered southern China, there isn’t a “flour” tradition like northern China. This means that folks in southern China don’t make dough from scratch at home. Shaomai wrappers are all purchased at the market. Same thing goes for wontons, which are also from Shanghai.  Shaomai wrappers are circular, and are slightly larger than dumpling wrappers.

The sticky rice filling is quite sticky so it’s easy to use chopsticks to fill the shaomai.  Use about 2-3 tablespoons of the mixture per shaomai.  Gather the edges up and make uniform pleats.  Then press the top of the filling down into the center.  You want the bottom to bulge, “like a fat tummy, ” she told me.  After pressing the filling down and encouraging the lower belly of the shaomai to swell, you might add another teaspoon of filling on top.  Rotate the shaomai in your hands almost like you are working on a pottery wheel to shape it.

She repeatedly told me they are easier to make than wontons, but hers were consistently prettier than mine. I need more practice with the muscle memory of rotating and the art of getting the perfect shaomai shape.  Our tops were also wider than the ones sold outside.

Arrange all of the shaomai on a board.

Steam the shaomai in a steamer. If you don’t have a nice steamer, you might have a simple vegetable steamer that could work. They steam about 20 minutes, or until the wrappers have changed in color, and are a bit translucent.

Because shaomai have soy sauce in the filling, they have enough flavor to be enjoyed plain. They’re also often eaten with a splash of good dark vinegar. They can be served as a snack, or as the starch component of a larger meal, paired with a few simple vegetable dishes. That day at lunch we also had stirfried bamboo with water chestnuts, and a simple soup of vermicelli noodles and slivered taro root.

Vegetarian Zhajiang Mian
November 9, 2016, 7:58 pm
Filed under: Living in China, Uncategorized | Tags:

Zhajiang Mian is a famous noodle dish from Henan province, and I learned to make it about 3 years ago from a former student from that province.  She’s a great cook, and intuitively adjusted the recipe to make it vegetarian for me.

Soon after I learned this dish, my parents were visiting me in Nanjing, and I had a few students over to help make homemade noodles and this sauce for them.  When I told my parents all of the ingredients in this sauce, they said it sounded gross, with too many competing flavors.  However, when they took the first bite, their eyes lit up and they asked if I could make it for my grandparents when I went home that summer.  And could I also make it for church?  I admit, the combination of ingredients initially sounds strange because it’s different from an Italian pasta sauce, and honestly the final product has a murky color that isn’t very pretty.  You’ll notice I don’t even have any good photos of the sauce.  The sauce almost looks like a wok-ful of puke, but it smells wonderful and tastes delicious.  The predominant flavors here are ginger and fried peanuts.

I was recently in Shandong province visiting a former student.  Her mom is a professional noodle-maker, and at one meal she made the noodles, and the student asked me to make the Zhajiang Mian sauce because she and I had made it together several times when she was a student here in Nanjing.  In fact, when we made it for my parents, she was the student who made the homemade noodles for that meal.  Because this sauce comes from a different province, her mom didn’t know it, and she was learning it from me that day.  I sometimes find myself teaching Chinese regional dishes to Chinese friends from different provinces, which seems strange.


noodle dough at my student’s home


my student’s mother, making the noodle dough

I use Chinese yellow bean sauce for this, but you can use a Korean daenjang or a Thai fermented yellow bean sauce.

This version of the recipe has carrots and garlic shoots.  You can substitute most any other vegetables instead of the carrots.  I recently used spinach and taro roots in their place.  It might be difficult for you to find garlic shoots, and if that’s the case, you can double the amount of green onions.

Zhajiang Mian recipe: for 6 people with leftovers


3/4 cup peanuts

6 eggs

1 block soft tofu

1/2 head of garlic

ginger: same amount as garlic

1 bunch green onions, white and green parts

2-3 TBS yellow bean paste

2 tomatoes


ground dried red chile, to taste

ground Sichuan peppercorns, to taste (optional)

2 carrots

splash of soy sauce

1 bunch garlic garlic shoots ( or substitute another bunch of green onions)

3-4 TBS cornstarch



Heat the oil in a wok over medium-high heat.  Fry the peanuts, then remove them from the oil with a slotted spoon.  Set the peanuts aside.

Beat the eggs in a large bowl.  Cut the soft tofu into a small dice, then carefully stir the diced tofu into the beaten eggs.  Heat a little more oil in the wok over high heat.  When very hot, add the egg-tofu mixture.  It will puff a bit like  a soufflé.  When fully scrambled, removed that egg-tofu mixture from the wok and set aside.

Chop the garlic, ginger, green onions and garlic shoots.  Cut the carrots and tomatoes into a dice.

Add a little more oil to the wok.  Add the yellow bean paste.  A few seconds later, add the ginger, garlic and green onions.  Then add the tomatoes and salt.  Cook for 2 minutes, and then add ground red chile and Sichuan Peppercorn powder, if using.  Add the diced carrots and a little soy sauce.  Then add the garlic shoots.  Let it cook several minutes.  Then add the egg/tofu mixture.  

Add about 1 quart of boiling water to the wok to thin out the sauce.  Mix the cornstarch with cold water, then add that cornstarch mixture to the wok.  Let this cook about 10 minutes while you boil the noodles in a separate pot.  Pound the fried peanuts with a mortar-pestle, and then add them to the sauce at the end.