Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China | Tags: China, tofu, travel
This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting some of my students. One of the places I visited was Debao County, a remote mountainous region in Guangxi near the Vietnamese border. While in Debao County, my student took me to Du’an Village for the day to learn the traditional method for making tofu.
Debao County is known for excellent homemade tofu. Debao people regard mass-produced tofu (what the rest of us eat) as “fake tofu.” Only homemade tofu is considered “real tofu” and most people only eat tofu that was freshly made that morning. The tofu-masters get up before dawn to make a batch at home. Then after dawn they take the fresh tofu to the market to sell. Before this trip, my student waxed poetically about the tofu from this area, claiming it’s the most delicious in China. He couldn’t contain his excitement about introducing me to a “tofu master” so that I could learn the old method.
When I arrived in Debao, I was promptly served a meal that included fresh tofu and I swooned. Their homemade tofu has a wonderful rich fermented flavor, like a good beer or German bread. It is usually served in simple ways, often pan-fried plain or with garlic. This fresh tofu has a deep flavor on its own, and doesn’t need a complex sauce to find flavor.
My student introduced me to a woman in her 80s who taught us the traditional method for making tofu. You can make tofu at home using a blender, however the traditional method creates a richer flavor and better texture. A big stone grinding wheel is required. Most homes in these villages have a stone grinding wheel to grind dried corn. We started that morning by grinding the raw soybeans to lightly crush the beans and take the peeling off the soybeans. The wheel is incredibly heavy and difficult to turn.
We were told that in the modern tofu-making process, the skins are removed from the soybeans after cooking, or not removed at all, which makes a poor product. Removing the skins before cooking the beans creates a more even texture.
After the raw soybeans are crushed, the skins are shaken off. They used a wide, flat basket to shake the skins onto the cement floor.
Next the soybeans are soaked in cold water for 30 minutes to soften slightly. Then the soybeans are ground a second time on the stone grinder.
After the second grinding, the soybeans are cooked in water over an extremely low fire. A wood fire is preferred. They use a special kind of wood that perfumes the tofu with extra flavor.
Once the soybeans have come to a rolling boil, a little cold soaking liquid is added to cool the mixture down slightly. Then a fermenting ash is added. This fermenting ash is a by-product from the previous batch of homemade tofu. Once the ash is added, the liquid will start to curdle. I tasted a little at this stage, and it was delicious.
Then the mixture is poured into a wooden frame that has holes in the bottom for draining. The frame is lined on the inside with fabric, which creates a pretty pattern on the finished tofu.
After all of the mixture is poured into the frame, and is wrapped gently in fabric, we pressed the wooden lid firmly to help squeeze excess liquid out.
The tofu only takes a few minutes to set into a firm rectangular shape. Once it has set, the sides of the frame are removed (like a springform pan).
Then the lid is removed and the tofu is cut into rectangles. We used a measuring tape to create lines to guide the knife.
The fresh tofu was promptly fried up for lunch. It had a rustic presentation, but was more delicious than words can describe. I greedlily ate more than my fair share on that plate. I was so proud that I helped make this tofu!
That day while we were making tofu, the orchestra of that village came over to play a concert for me. The orchestra of Du’an village is the premiere orchestra for Zhuang Opera, which is the Zhuang Minority style of Chinese Opera. The top orchestra has always come from this village, and they were proud to play a private concert for me to welcome me to their village. It was one of the most incredible experiences of my life. The musicians are all farmers, and learned by watching their elders. None of them read sheet music. They apologized for not wearing traditional concert attire. Here’s one of the videos that my students recorded.
In the 1950s, the Zhuang Opera orchestra from this village (which would have the elders of the current members), travelled to Beijing to perform for Mao Zedong and Zhoul Enlai. They played one song for me from the concert for Mao. It’s a song celebrating farm life, and the instruments are used create the sounds of birds in the early morning.
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China, recipes | Tags: China, rice, travel
This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting some of my students. One of the places I visited in Guangxi was Debao County, a remote mountainous region near the Vietnamese border.
While in Debao, one of my student’s friends wanted to teach me how to make bamboo rice, which is the method of cooking sticky rice in bamboo poles over an outdoor fire. Because it is a slow process, this is normally something that children in Debao do for fun. Adults generally don’t have the time or patience for it. I guess in this region children learn how to use machetes at a young age. Making rice in bamboo poles takes time, but the finished steamed rice is incredibly fragrant from being cooked inside the bamboo. I’m outlining the process for you in case you want to make this at home (and have a machete).
Start by using a machete to chop down some bamboo. Use strong, dark green poles of bamboo. Wash it well. We washed ours in the stream.
You will steam the rice in hollow sections of the bamboo. The sections are marked by the horizontal lines on the outside of the bamboo. Use a knife to cut a hole in one of the horizontal dividing walls inside the bamboo. The hole should be a little less than an inch in diameter.
In a large bowl, combine raw sticky rice with room temperature water, and add a little salt. My friends didn’t measure any of this. Use a soup spoon to scoop rice into the bamboo. Then use a chopstick to push the rice around until it goes through the hole. If you get ahead of yourself and put several spoonfuls of rice over the hole before pushing it through, it will be harder to push through. Just be patient and use a spoonful or two at a time. You might want to have one person spoon the rice and another person using a chopstick to push the rice through the hole.
When you think the rice has filled the section of the bamboo to the halfway point (you can use a chopstick as a dipstick to measure the level of the rice), then stop adding rice, and pour water into the hole to fill the section of bamboo with water. To close the hole, shove a big carrot into the hole to seal it. When it’s finished cooking, the roasted carrot is edible.
Repeat this process with as many bamboo poles as you are using.
Make a fire outside using wood, and ideally include bamboo branches and leaves for fuel. Place the bamboo poles on the fire, only 2 at a time. Roast over the fire until it is cooked. My friends did not set a specific time for roasting. One benefit of cooking bamboo rice is that the rice won’t burn inside the bamboo, as it might in a metal pot. The bamboo walls will keep the rice moist. The bamboo pole will char a bit, which is fine. However if the bamboo gets hot enough after charring to actually catch on fire, then pull it away from the fire. You don’t want the bamboo rice cooking longer than that.
Pull out the roasted carrot with tongs.
Use a machete or large knife to cut open the bamboo, lengthwise.
Scoop out the sticky rice, or eat it straight out of the bamboo as a bowl.
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China | Tags: breakfast, China, street food, travel
This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting my students’ homes. It was a sort of learning tour for myself to learn about my students’ lives. I spent a week in Debao county, Guangxi province, which is a remote mountainous region near the Vietnamese border. The mountains are the same kind of vertical karst mountains that are so famous in Guilin, but tourists don’t visit Debao because the region is so remote. The first roads in the area were built 20 years ago, and in some villages only 10 years ago.
Debao county also isn’t on the tourist path because it doesn’t have any special lovely traditional architecture to lure tourists. It’s a Zhuang minority area, but people don’t wear traditional clothes anymore. Guidebooks dismissively say that the Zhuang have assimilated into the mainstream Han Chinese culture, but after spending a week there living with a family, I can say there are some special aspects to life there. Some distinctions include the local language of Debao county, which has some similarities with Thai, and it’s the only place in China where the work animal is the pony! The cuisine is also special, with a few Vietnamese influences.
One of the Vietnamese culinary influences is found in the rice rolls, called juan tong fen in Mandarin. Juan is the verb for rolling things. Tong is the noun for a rolled object, and fen is for rice flour. These rice rolls are a common street breakfast in Debao.
The stall we visited made the rice sheets fresh to order, which made the rice rolls warm, soft, and slightly thicker than the Vietnamese rolls I’ve had before. They were slightly reminiscent of crepes. The process starts with a bowl of batter for the sheets, which consists of rice flour dissolved in water. She uses a ladle to spread a thin layer of batter on a piece of cloth that is stretched over a steamer. Then it is covered with a lid to steam for about 20 seconds.
After the rice sheet has steamed, it is removed with wooden sticks.
There are a variety of fillings, and customers order a combination of 2-4 fillings. Many of the fillings are preserved items, so the juan tong fen has a mild sour edge. Some of the fillings were chopped green beans, preserved bamboo shoots, soy bean sprouts, sour pickled vegetables, and some meat, all chopped fine.
Then the juan tong fen is quickly rolled up. Because the rice paper is fresh, it is thicker than store-bought rice paper, and it is soft and warm, quite comforting for a breakfast food.
Many people drizzle a little soy sauce on top.
This little boy was waiting patiently for his breakfast juantongfen.
I spent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.
When in Bangkok, I was determined to visit the Chattuchak Weekend Market, also called Jattujak, or “JJ.” The market attracts about 200,000 visitors each weekend, and seems to the be the size of a small town. Stalls sell everything from traditional handcrafts to hipster fashion labels to exotic pets. I bought several blouses at a stall that sold used clothing from Japan. Food stalls are strewn throughout the market, and there are also a few larger food areas.
It was so incredibly hot that day, and I think I drank about 5 Thai iced teas.
We had lunch at this Malaysian Halal food stall.
My friend had this bowl of Malaysian curry noodles for lunch, topped with crisp fried onions (and Thai iced tea).
I had pad thai (and Thai iced tea).
Fresh coconut ice cream, served in a coconut shell, and topped with peanuts.
Here I am eating fresh coconut ice cream.
At this stall they were making huge vats of “boat noodles.”
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues | Tags: noodles, soups, Thailand, travel
I sent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.
To get ready for the trip, I did some online research about street food in Bangkok, and discovered this food blogger who is passionate about street food in Bangkok, and has an e-book about eating vegetarian in Thailand. The e-guide was a good investment at around $6, because I learned some phrases for ordering dishes vegetarian, learned a broader spectrum of Thai dishes, and I was introduced to some phenomenal vegetarian restaurants in Bangkok.
Su Ki Jeh Ruyi was my favorite vegetarian restaurnt on his list. It’s a simple place near the Hua Lamphong train station and MRT station, which made it extremely convenient. It was packed until late at night with older locals, and we were the only westerners during our visits.
The first time I was there I fell in love with a vegetarian tom yum noodle soup. The broth was electric, simply stunning with strong flavors of kaffir lime, ginger, and chili. My friends and I were crazy about it and returned to the restaurant 2 more times. This poor photo was taken late at night with an older camera, and it can’t capture how amazing this soup was. You can see the pretty curve of the fresh oyster mushrooms, but you can’t see the vividness of the elecric broth.
Here I am eating the tom yum noodle soup. We had a long day of walking in the heat, and this soup was restorative and bright at 9pm.
Vegetarian sign above the restaurant.
Location: 285 Soi Phraya Singhaseni Street, Bangkok, Thailand, 13330
Direction: The restaurant is located right around the corner from Hua Lamphong MRT station and train station. From the MRT station, take exit #3 and turn left to head backwards, away from the train station. Take a left on to Soi Phraya Singhaseni, and it’s just 50 meters down the road on your right hand side.
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues | Tags: eggplant, mushrooms, salads, soups, street food, Thailand, travel
I spent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.
I fell in love with Issan street food carts. Issan is a northeast region of Thailand, bordering Cambodia. The weather is super-hot, so the cuisine is based on salads and refreshing lime and chile flavor profiles.
This is one the most famous Issan dishes, the green papaya salad. It has a lime-chili salad dressing, and is garnished with peanuts.
This Issan lunch cart on Koh Tao island made phenomenal food. It’s where the locals in the neighborhood came to eat.
This green papaya salad on Koh Tao had a good dose of shredded carrots.
Molly’s green papaya salad was so delicious that she wanted to inhale it.
I read this e-book guide about eating vegetarian food in Thailand, and learned about gaang aom, a phenomenal Issan soup made from pumpkin, mushrooms, baby green eggplants, and leafy greens. I absolutely fell in love with this refreshing, restorative soup, and ate it for several lunches in Thailand.
These are the baby green eggplants that are used for the gaang aom soup, as well as a myriad of other Thai dishes.
Another amazing bowl of gaang aom soup.
I was in love with gaang aom soup! It’s served sticky rice, which you can dip into the soup.
This mushroom soup is similar to the gaang aom soup, but has fewer greens.
Fermented bamboo salad, garnished with mint leaves. It has a chili-lime dressing, and a tiny bit of ground toasted rice for texture.
Shredded bamboo in the vegetable market.
Enjoyed Issan lunches with friends Molly and Andrew.
Friends Molly and Andrew are tucking into mushroom soup and green papaya salad.
Another Issan lunch cart.
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues | Tags: noodles, street food, Thailand, travel
I spent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.
Pad Thai is an cheap, delicious meal, and I happily ate it several times during my month-long trip. Lime, garlic, peanuts, tofu… what’s not to love? I downloaded an e-guide for eating vegetarian in Thailand, which had some helpful phrases for ordering food without fish sauce or dried shrimp, both of which are traditionally included in Pad Thai. That little guide was helpful for me as a vegetarian.
Here’s a version of pad thai in Chiang Mai, at a little cafe run by a grandma and grandpa, across the street from the YMCA.
Pad Thai and Thai iced tea at Chattuchak (or Jattujak) Market, Bangkok’s premiere weekend market, which attracts 200,000 visitors most weekends.
Here is a pad thai street cart in Bangkok. The woman here is making my plate of pad thai. She had 6 kinds of noodles you could choose from.
Gorgeous and cheap pad thai on the street. I bought it from a cart, and ate it on a plastic stool on the sidewalk, holding it on my lap.
Here I’m happy to have a lovely plate of pad thai at the Cambodian border, after a long dusty train ride through the Issan region.
Gorgeous pad thai on the Cambodian border, after a long train ride.
Channeling Jason Schwartzman on a 1910-era Thai train.
The puppy I met on Chinese New Year before eating a plate of pad thai.
Enjoyed this plate late at night after walking the streets of Bangkok’s Chinatown for Chinese New Year. We had been eating street food like durian, but I was hungry for something a little more substantial. This pad thai street cart offered several kinds of noodles, including these extra-wide rice noodles. They were fresh and soft — an amazing texture paired with with the pad thai flavors.