keito potato

Where Tea is Oil Soup and Bridges are Art
July 9, 2014, 11:27 pm
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China | Tags: , , ,

Last summer I spent two weeks visiting students in Guangxi Autonomous Region in Southern China.  My last stop was a few days in the home of my student from the Dong ethnic minority, in Sanjiang County.  The Dong ethnic minority group is one of the smallest minorities in China, and they are known for their intricate wooden architecture and their picturesque villages tucked away in this mountainous corner of northern Guangxi, near the border of Guizhou.

drum tower




Adventurous backpackers pass through to admire the old covered wooden bridges and stunning drum towers. 





wooden bridge


Most villages are adjacent to a river, and in the Dong tradition, they have built covered wooden bridges to provide a breezy and shady spot for people to rest.  

wooden bridge

men on bridge


Each village also has a tall, triangular drum tower that served to warn the village of dangers.  Nowadays most drum towers are communal spaces where old men play chess and take naps. 

drum tower

drum tower


men in a drum tower

Sadly because the delightful Dong architecture is wooden, it is susceptible to fires and numerous recent fires have destroyed bridges, drum towers, and even whole villages,  This particular village clinging to a steep mountain burned down a few years ago, and the villagers are currently rebuilding the whole village using the traditional style. 

village and terraces


Instead of staying in a backpacker guesthouse, I was lucky to have the opportunity to stay in my student’s home in a village off the beaten backpacker path.  I was roughing it on this trip, as we had to walk 20 minutes along a grassy path to fetch drinking water, and we washed our hair in the river.

children swimming under a wooden bridge



Their wooden homes are lovely in photos, but exposed to the elements with open walls.  Birds and wasps wander in and out, and I imagine it would be frigid when it snows in the winter.


wooden building

My student’s parents and in-laws are farmers, picking green tea leaves as well as various fruits. This is my student’s mother-in-law.  I stayed in her home.

My student's mother-in-law.  I stayed in her home for a few days.

My student’s mother-in-law. I stayed in her home for a few days.

Surprisingly when the locals keep some of the tea leaves for themselves, they don’t use the leaves to brew tea as a beverage.  This region is so remote that common Chinese tea culture didn’t penetrate it.  They grow tea here, but do their own thing with the leaves.  They make soup out of it.  The Dong use tea leaves to steep a green tea soup for breakfast.  It’s simmered in oil before the water is added, so the name for the soup is “oil tea” - “you cha.”

These green tea leaves are drying on the 3rd floor of the family house.

drying green tea on the 3rd floor

drying green tea on the 3rd floor


First peanuts are fried in a wok.

frying peanuts

The peanuts are removed.  More oil is added to the wok, and next puffed rice is fried in the oil.  

adding oil

frying puffed rice

frying puffed rice

The puffed rice is removed and finally the green tea leaves are fried in oil.  After a few minutes hot water is added so the leaves simmer into a soup.

frying tea

frying tea

boiling tea soup

To serve, the fried peanuts and puffed rice are dropped in a bowl, then topped with oily tea soup.  It is eaten for breakfast alongside fried eggs and stir-fried dishes.

oily tea soup


breakfast table

breakfast table


water buffalo




A Surprising Tradition: a Corn Culture in Debao County, Guangxi
July 7, 2014, 11:03 pm
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China

I haven’t posted in quite a while – I apologize! I have several stories to tell from the past year.  Here’s another story from last summer – some observations about unique uses of corn in a remote county.

boys with birds in Debao


Last summer I designed a learning tour for myself, and spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces in southern China, living in my students’ homes.  I spent a week in Debao County, Guangxi province, a remote mountainous region near the Vietnamese border. 

Living in China, I have been told over and over again that Chinese cuisine has a north-south divide along the line of the preferred starch at the table.  It’s wheat in the north and rice in the south.  In northern China, people eat more more wheat-based foods like dumplings, noodles, and steamed breads.  In the south, rice in more prominent, and southern noodles are usually rice noodles.

But I had never heard of a corn culture in China.  In Debao I learned that the remote, mountainous region has a unique tradition of using corn instead of rice or wheat.  Only recently have people started eating bowls of rice at the table.  Until a few years ago, rice was considered so precious that a small bag of rice was a common wedding present of great value.

corn growing in Debao


Because the karst mountains are  so steep around Debao, farmers can’t grow rice in terraced paddies like other regions of China, and the spaces between the karst mountains are only narrow valleys.  Farms are small, so people have grown corn because they could obtain more nutrients per square acre. 

corn field in between mountains

corn in Debao

Instead of having a bowl of rice at the table, the traditional starchy side dish was a bowl of corn porridge, not dissimilar to grits or polenta.  Debao style corn porridge however only includes dried ground corn and water – no salt or fat or other flavorings.  At the table, people dip their stir-fried vegetable and meat dishes into the runny corn porridge, combining stirfry with porridge instead of stirfry with rice. 

yumi zhou

In the last 10 years, people in Debao have been transitioning into eating bowls of rice as their starch side dish, but many in the older generation still prefer a bowl of corn porridge, called yumi zhou.  When I lived with this student’s family for a week, I observed that the mother always ate corn porridge, made in a pressure cooker, while the rest of the faily ate steamed rice with their meals. 

Not only have corn porridge been the traditional starch side dish, there are numerous ways that corn is indispensible to the distince local cuisine.

A common breakfast beverage is yumi zhi, a hot, sweet, pureed corn beverage.  Corn kernels are removed from the cob, then boiled until soft.  Then it is pureed in a blender with a scant amount of sugar.  The mixture is poured through a metal strainer to create a creamy consistency.  The taste is pure, sweet corn flavor, like pure melted rich gold.  Sweet corn enthusiasts would go crazy for this if they could taste it.  

yumi zhi

One of the favorite street snacks in Debao is kao yumi, roasted corn.   Street vendors everywhere were roasting corn on the sidewalk.  One day while driving on a winding mountain road, we stopped to admire a lake and noticed some small girls were roasting their own corn over a fire.

Debao lake

girls roasting corn

One evening a friend of the family came over and brought homemade snacks that were quite similar to tamales, corn steamed banana leaves.  Because they were wrapped  in banana leaves, they were like the Oaxacan version of tamales.  It’s fascinating that people on opposite sides of the planet can create such similar foods. 

steamed corn in banana leaf

I’ll close with a simple dish of fresh corn stirfried with scrambled eggs.  The variety of corn in Debao produces wide, flat corn kernals, with a firmer texure than American corn.




Traditional Tofu-Making Experience in Debao, Guangxi
August 16, 2013, 2:42 am
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China | Tags: , ,

This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting some of my students.   One of the places I visited was Debao County, a remote mountainous region in Guangxi near the Vietnamese border.  While in Debao County, my student took me to Du’an Village for the day to learn the traditional method for making tofu.

Du'an landscape

Debao County is known for excellent homemade tofu.  Debao people regard mass-produced tofu (what the rest of us eat) as “fake tofu.”  Only homemade tofu is considered “real tofu” and most people only eat tofu that was freshly made that morning.  The tofu-masters get up before dawn to make a batch at home.  Then after dawn they take the fresh tofu to the market to sell.  Before this trip, my student waxed poetically about the tofu from this area, claiming it’s the most delicious in China.  He couldn’t contain his excitement about introducing me to a “tofu master” so that I could learn the old method.

When I arrived in Debao, I was promptly served a meal that included fresh tofu and I swooned.  Their homemade tofu has a wonderful rich fermented flavor, like a good beer or German bread.  It is usually served in simple ways, often pan-fried plain or with garlic.  This fresh tofu has a deep flavor on its own, and doesn’t need a complex sauce to find flavor.


My student introduced me to a woman in her 80s who taught us the traditional method for making tofu.  You can make tofu at home using a blender, however the traditional method creates a richer flavor and better texture.  A big stone grinding wheel is required.  Most homes in these villages have a stone grinding wheel to grind dried corn.  We started that morning by grinding the raw soybeans to lightly crush the beans and take the peeling off the soybeans.  The wheel is incredibly heavy and difficult to turn.

stone grinder

stone grinder

We were told that in the modern tofu-making process, the skins are removed from the soybeans after cooking, or not removed at all, which makes a poor product.  Removing the skins before cooking the beans creates a more even texture.

stone grinder

After the raw soybeans are crushed, the skins are shaken off.  They used a wide, flat basket to shake the skins onto the cement floor.

shaking the peels off

Next the soybeans are soaked in cold water for 30 minutes to soften slightly.  Then the soybeans are ground a second time on the stone grinder.

After the second grinding, the soybeans are cooked in water over an extremely low fire.  A wood fire is preferred.  They use a special kind of wood that perfumes the tofu with extra flavor.

cooking the soybeans

Once the soybeans have come to a rolling boil, a little cold soaking liquid is added to cool the mixture down slightly.  Then a fermenting ash is added.  This fermenting ash is a by-product from the previous batch of homemade tofu.  Once the ash is added, the liquid will start to curdle.  I tasted a little at this stage, and it was delicious.

Then the mixture is poured into a wooden frame that has holes in the bottom for draining.  The frame is lined on the inside with fabric, which creates a pretty pattern on the finished tofu.

wooden frame

wooden frame


After all of the mixture is poured into the frame, and is wrapped gently in fabric, we pressed the wooden lid firmly to help squeeze excess liquid out.

pressing the wooden lid

The tofu only takes a few minutes to set into a firm rectangular shape.  Once it has set, the sides of the frame are removed (like a springform pan).

removable frame sides

Then the lid is removed and the tofu is cut into rectangles.  We used a measuring tape to create lines to guide the knife.

cutting the tofu

The fresh tofu was promptly fried up for lunch.  It had a rustic presentation, but was more delicious than words can describe.  I greedlily ate more than my fair share on that plate.  I was so proud that I helped make this tofu!

fresh tofu

That day while we were making tofu, the orchestra of that village came over to play a concert for me.  The orchestra of Du’an village is the premiere orchestra for Zhuang Opera, which is the Zhuang Minority style of Chinese Opera.  The top orchestra has always come from this village, and they were proud to play a private concert for me to welcome me to their village. It was one of the most incredible experiences of my life.  The musicians are all farmers, and learned by watching their elders.  None of them read sheet music.  They apologized for not wearing traditional concert attire.  Here’s one of the videos that my students recorded.

In the 1950s, the Zhuang Opera orchestra from this village (which would have the elders of the current members), travelled to Beijing to perform for Mao Zedong and Zhoul Enlai.  They played one song for me from the concert for Mao.  It’s a song celebrating farm life, and the instruments are used create the sounds of birds in the early morning.

Making Bamboo Rice in Debao, Guangxi
August 7, 2013, 5:50 am
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China, recipes | Tags: , ,

This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting some of my students.   One of the places I visited in Guangxi was Debao County, a remote mountainous region near the Vietnamese border.

Debao landscape

While in Debao, one of my student’s friends wanted to teach me how to make bamboo rice, which is the method of cooking sticky rice in bamboo poles over an outdoor fire.  Because it is a slow process, this is normally something that children in Debao do for fun.  Adults generally don’t have the time or patience for it.  I guess in this region children learn how to use machetes at a young age.  Making rice in bamboo poles takes time, but the finished steamed rice is incredibly fragrant from being cooked inside the bamboo.  I’m outlining the process for you in case you want to make this at home (and have a machete).

eating bamboo rice


Start by using a machete to chop down some bamboo.  Use strong, dark green poles of bamboo.  Wash it well.  We washed ours in the stream.

washing bamboo in the stream

You will steam the rice in hollow sections of the bamboo.  The sections are marked by the horizontal lines on the outside of the bamboo.  Use a knife to cut a hole in one of the horizontal dividing walls inside the bamboo.  The hole should be a little less than an inch in diameter.

bamboo rice

In a large bowl, combine raw sticky rice with room temperature water, and add a little salt.  My friends didn’t measure any of this.  Use a soup spoon to scoop rice into the bamboo.  Then use a chopstick to push the rice around until it goes through the hole.  If you get ahead of yourself and put several spoonfuls of rice over the hole before pushing it through, it will be harder to push through.  Just be patient and use a spoonful or two at a time.  You might want to have one person spoon the rice and another person using a chopstick to push the rice through the hole.

sticky rice

When you think the rice has filled the section of the bamboo to the halfway point (you can use a chopstick as a dipstick to measure the level of the rice), then stop adding rice, and pour water into the hole to fill the section of bamboo with water.  To close the hole, shove a big carrot into the hole to seal it.  When it’s finished cooking, the roasted carrot is edible.


Repeat this process with as many bamboo poles as you are using.

Make a fire outside using wood, and ideally include bamboo branches and leaves for fuel.  Place the bamboo poles on the fire, only 2 at a time.  Roast over the fire until it is cooked.  My friends did not set a specific time for roasting.  One benefit of cooking bamboo rice is that the rice won’t burn inside the bamboo, as it might in a metal pot.  The bamboo walls will keep the rice moist.  The bamboo pole will char a bit, which is fine.  However if the bamboo gets hot enough after charring to actually catch on fire, then pull it away from the fire.  You don’t want the bamboo rice cooking longer than that.

cooking bamboo rice

cooking bamboo rice

Pull out the roasted carrot with tongs.

finished bamboo rice


Use a machete or large knife to cut open the bamboo, lengthwise.


Scoop out the sticky rice, or eat it straight out of the bamboo as a bowl.

bamboo rice

bamboo rice

Juan Tong Fen — Rice Rolls in Debao, Guangxi Province
August 6, 2013, 8:25 am
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues, Living in China | Tags: , , ,

Karst mountains around Debao

This summer I spent 3 weeks in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces visiting my students’ homes.  It was a sort of learning tour for myself to learn about my students’ lives.   I spent a week in Debao county, Guangxi province, which is a remote mountainous region near the Vietnamese border.  The mountains are the same kind of vertical karst mountains that are so famous in Guilin, but tourists don’t visit Debao because the region is so remote.  The first roads in the area were built 20 years ago, and in some villages only 10 years ago.

Debao landscape

Debao county also isn’t on the tourist path because it doesn’t have any special lovely traditional architecture to lure tourists.  It’s a Zhuang minority area, but people don’t wear traditional clothes anymore.  Guidebooks dismissively say that the Zhuang have assimilated into the mainstream Han Chinese culture, but after spending a week there living with a family, I can say there are some special aspects to life there.  Some distinctions include the local language of Debao county, which has some similarities with Thai, and it’s the only place in China where the work animal is the pony!  The cuisine is also special, with a few Vietnamese influences.

Juan tong fen

One of the Vietnamese culinary influences is found in the rice rolls, called juan tong fen in Mandarin.  Juan is the verb for rolling things.  Tong is the noun for a rolled object, and fen is for rice flour.  These rice rolls are a common street breakfast in Debao.

juan tong fen stall

pouring rice batter

The stall we visited made the rice sheets fresh to order, which made the rice rolls warm, soft, and slightly thicker than the Vietnamese rolls I’ve had before.  They were slightly reminiscent of crepes.  The process starts with a bowl of batter for the sheets, which consists of rice flour dissolved in water.  She uses a ladle to spread a thin layer of batter on a piece of cloth that is stretched over a steamer.  Then it is covered with a lid to steam for about 20 seconds.


After the rice sheet has steamed, it is removed with wooden sticks.

fresh rice paper

There are a variety of fillings, and customers order a combination of 2-4 fillings.  Many of the fillings are preserved items, so the juan tong fen has a mild sour edge.  Some of the fillings were chopped green beans, preserved bamboo shoots, soy bean sprouts, sour pickled vegetables, and some meat, all chopped fine.

adding fillings

Then the juan tong fen is quickly rolled up.  Because the rice paper is fresh, it is thicker than store-bought rice paper, and it is soft and warm, quite comforting for a breakfast food.

rolling the juan tong fen

juan tong fen

Many people drizzle a little soy sauce on top.

drizzling soy sauce

This little boy was waiting patiently for his breakfast juantongfen.

waiting boy

Eating at Bangkok’s Chattuchak Weekend Market
July 2, 2013, 6:50 am
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues | Tags: , ,

I spent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.

When in Bangkok, I was determined to visit the Chattuchak Weekend Market, also called Jattujak, or “JJ.”  The market attracts about 200,000 visitors each weekend, and seems to the be the size of a small town.  Stalls sell everything from traditional handcrafts to hipster fashion labels to exotic pets.  I bought several blouses at a stall that sold used clothing from Japan.  Food stalls are strewn throughout the market, and there are also a few larger food areas.

Chattuchak weekend market

Thai iced tea

It was so incredibly hot that day, and I think I drank about 5 Thai iced teas.

Malaysian halal food stall

We had lunch at this Malaysian Halal food stall.

curry noodles

My friend had this bowl of Malaysian curry noodles for lunch, topped with crisp fried onions (and Thai iced tea).

pad thai at Bangkok's Jattujak (JJ) weekend market

I had pad thai (and Thai iced tea).

coconut ice cream

Fresh coconut ice cream, served in a coconut shell, and topped with peanuts.

eating fresh coconut ice cream

Here I am eating fresh coconut ice cream.

boat noodles

At this stall they were making huge vats of “boat noodles.”

Su Ki Jeh Ruyi Vegetarian Restaurant in Bangkok
July 2, 2013, 6:13 am
Filed under: Food-Focused Travelogues | Tags: , , ,

I sent a month in Thailand during my holiday for the Chinese New Year.

To get ready for the trip, I did some online research about street food in Bangkok, and discovered this food blogger who is passionate about street food in Bangkok, and has an e-book about eating vegetarian in Thailand.  The e-guide was a good investment at around $6, because I learned some phrases for ordering dishes vegetarian, learned a broader spectrum of Thai dishes, and I was introduced to some phenomenal vegetarian restaurants in Bangkok.

Su Ki Jeh Ruyi was my favorite vegetarian restaurnt on his list.  It’s a simple place near the Hua Lamphong train station and MRT station, which made it extremely convenient.  It was packed until late at night with older locals, and we were the only westerners during our visits.

vegetarian tom yum noodle soup

The first time I was there I fell in love with a vegetarian tom yum noodle soup.  The broth was electric, simply stunning with strong flavors of kaffir lime, ginger, and chili.  My friends and I were crazy about it and returned to the restaurant 2 more times.  This poor photo was taken late at night with an older camera, and it can’t capture how amazing this soup was.  You can see the pretty curve of the fresh oyster mushrooms, but you can’t see the vividness of the elecric broth.

eating vegetarian tom yum noodle soup

Here I am eating the tom yum noodle soup.  We had a long day of walking in the heat, and this soup was restorative and bright at 9pm.

vegetarian sign

Vegetarian sign above the restaurant.

Location: 285 Soi Phraya Singhaseni Street, Bangkok, Thailand, 13330

Direction: The restaurant is located right around the corner from Hua Lamphong MRT station and train station.  From the MRT station, take exit #3 and turn left to head backwards, away from the train station.  Take a left on to Soi Phraya Singhaseni, and it’s just 50 meters down the road on your right hand side.


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